This book – Glycobiology And Human Diseases presents two important, closely connected and fundamental areas of research: glycobiologyand human diseases. The fi eld of glycobiology is focused upon understanding the chemical structure, metabolism and biological function of simple and complex carbohydrates (glycans) and their glycoconjugates: glycoproteins, glycosaminoproteoglycans and glycolipids.
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The last three groups of biopolymers are fi nal products of post-translational modifi cation of proteins and lipids and play a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis. Protein folding, intercellular communication, development, the immune system, various types of cell and molecular recognition and many others processes are characterized by close involvement of glycoconjugates. Major achievements in glycobiology have been obtained by the combined efforts of multiple investigators with a variety of backgrounds and expertise in carbohydrate chemistry, cell and molecular biology, enzymology and life sciences.
Glycomics, younger than genomics and proteomics, deals with the analysis of glycan moieties of glycoconjugates and elucidation of their functional roles. Comprehensive glycomics methods has led to an understanding of not only many unknown earlier glycobiology processes in the normal state, but has also signifi cantly expanded our knowledge of processes related to glycobiology in various human diseases.
The contents of this book – Glycobiology And Human Diseases illustrate the research productivity of these two directions in glycobiology. Chapter 1 (Wiederschain) presents an introduction to basic data about the peculiarity of simple and complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Consideration of the unique structure, biosynthesis, degradation and function of glycans forms a basis for consideration of critical changes in many of these processes in disease, and lays the ground work for the chapters that follow.
The reference list of this chapter includes many recently published reviews, monographs and collective comprehensive editions, and summarizes basic directions in glycobiology that may help readers expand their knowledge and skills in both theoretical and experimental areas of this science. Glycobiology And Human Diseases
Methods of structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans (GAG), applications of these methods for identifi cation of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) and GAG participation in the development of Lyme disease are reviewed in Chapters 2 (Azadi and Heiss), 3 (Bruggink et al.) and 4 (Lin et al.), respectively. Various methodical approaches for GAG analysis are described as well as changes of these biopolymers in different types of LSD, and the role of GAG in tissue tropism for the Lyme disease spirochete. Chapter 5 (Hartshorn) highlights the role of viral envelope protein glycosylation in pathogenesis of infl uenza A virus. Glycobiology And Human Diseases
In collaboration with experts in crystallography, molecular modeling, and molecular dynamics, the author and his colleagues have determined the molecular mechanism of binding of surfactant protein D (SP-D) to the infl uenza A virus hemagglutinin, and established the basis for increased inhibitory activity of mutant versions of SP-D. These studies provide the fi rst detailed molecular mechanism for viral inhibition by an innate lectin inhibitor based on shared expertise in virology, structural biology, protein chemistry, and glycomics
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