Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation

• Updated description of the integumentary system to include vitamin D production in the presence of sunlight.

• Updated definition of the term crural to specify the anterior leg, or shin.

• New “Critical Thinking and Clinical Application” question on blood clotting and feedback regulation.

• New “Critical Thinking and Clinical Application” question on using anatomical language to describe the location of a spinal injury and identifying the best medical imaging technique to diagnose a spinal problem.

• Updated “A Closer Look: Medical Imaging” with new discussion and images of mammogram and bone densitometry.

• New “Did You Get It?” questions throughout the chapter.

Free Online Books Download: Essentials Of Human Anatomy & Physiology 12th Edition
Free Online Books Download: Essentials Of Human Anatomy & Physiology 12th Edition

Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry

• New example of atomic symbol and Latin derivative for potassium.

• Revised discussion of hydrogen bonds to clarify that electrons are not involved in this type of bond as they are in covalent and ionic bonds.

• New example of importance of hydrogen bond in holding DNA strands together.

• All references to hydroxyl ion have been corrected to hydroxide ion.

• New sports analogies for acids and bases: putting electrons “in the game,” to represent free protons versus taking electrons “out of the game,” to represent binding a proton so it cannot contribute to a shift in pH.

• New “Did You Get It?” question part on the difference in pH between solutions at pH 11 and pH 5.

• Introduced concepts of hydrophilic and hydrophobic in discussion of phospholipids to help explain the functions of the polar head and fatty acid tails in cell membranes.

• Updated “Did You Get It?” question on lipids to include both phospholipids and cholesterol as cell membrane components.

• New analogy comparing the alpha (α)-helix to a metal spring.

• New analogy comparing a beta (β)-sheet to a pleated skirt, or paper folded into a fan.

• New analogy comparing enzymes and substrates to scissors and paper, respectively.

• New description of RNA function as DNA’s “molecular assistant.”

• New shorthand symbols for messenger (mRNA), transfer (tRNA) and ribosomal (rRNA) added.

• New analogy comparing glucose and ATP to crude oil and gasoline; energy must be in the proper form before it can be used by cells.

• New explanation of why the terminal phosphate bonds in ATP are high energy.

• New “Critical Thinking and Clinical Application” question on sickle cell anemia.

Chapter 3: Cells and Tissues

• New description of the principle of complementarity.

• New information about how mitochondria divide.

• New “cargo” in the form of a membrane-bound receptor protein added to pathway 2 of Figure 3.6.

• New analogy for lysosomes as “cellular stomachs.”

• New art of plasma membrane and new detail of mitochondrial function including aerobic respiration in Table 3.1.

• New analogy of dust “crowd surfing” on the mucus that cilia carry from the lungs.

• New description of neuron function includes production of neurotransmitters.

Free Online Books Download: Essentials Of Human Anatomy & Physiology 12th Edition

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